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According to International Valuation Standards, the valuation of intangible assets includes four main classes of identifiable intangible assets to help comply with the requirement to clearly define the assets being valued and the nature of the right or interest being valued. These classes are:

  • – related to marketing,
  • – related to customers or suppliers,
  • – related to technology, and
  • – related to artistic creation.

1. Marketing-related intangible assets are used primarily for the marketing or promotion of products or services. Examples of such assets include, but are not limited to:

  • – trademarks, trade names, unique trade designs, collective mark names and certification marks,
  • – commercial presentation (unique color, shape or design of the packaging),
  • – internet domain names, or
  • – non-compete agreements.

The word “brand” is often used to describe marketing assets. This is a generic description, which usually refers to a group of complementary assets that can be identified separately and therefore distinguished from goodwill. Rights to marketing-related assets such as trademarks, trade names or commercial representation are often protected by registration under the law.

2. Intangible assets related to customers or suppliers arise from relationships with customers or suppliers or from knowledge of customers or suppliers. Examples of such assets include, but are not limited to:

  • – contracts for advertising, construction, management, services or supplies
  • – licensing or copyright agreements
  • – service contract,
  • – order books
  • – employment contracts
  • – rights of use, such as drilling, use of water, air, logging and airport landing slots
  • – franchise agreements
  • – established customer relationships, or
  • – customer lists.

As can be seen from this list, rights to assets arising from relationships with customers or suppliers often arise as a result of contracts, although significant value can be attributed to non-contractual assets such as established relationships with customers or customer lists. .

3. Technology-related intangible assets arise from contractual or non-contractual rights to use a particular technology or formula, such as:

  • – patents and patented technologies
  • – a separate design of a machine or tool used for a particular process
  • – formula or formulation used in the manufacture of a product
  • – computer software, or
  • – design or specific product type.

Rights to technology-related intangible assets are often protected by law, but may also be granted by contract or implicitly protected by know-how (trade secrets).

4. Artistic intangible assets arise from rights to benefits, such as copyright, from works of art such as:

  • – plays and other stage works,
  • – books, newspapers and other literary works,
  • – movies, television and other visual media,
  • – musical works, including lyrics (published or performed), or
  • – photos, illustrations, drawings and pictures.

Often, rights to artistic intangible assets are subject to legal protection (copyright laws), but can also be transferred by contract.

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